Bangladesh

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Bangladesh
Background:
Definition Field Listing Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh in the 16th century; eventually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India. In 1947, West Pakistan and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955, but the awkward arrangement of a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1,600 km left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied. East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed Bangladesh. A military-backed caretaker regime suspended planned parliamentary elections in January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption; the regime has pledged new democratic elections by the end of 2008. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.
   Geography    Bangladesh
Location:
Definition Field Listing Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 24 00 N, 90 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Asia
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 144,000 sq km
land: 133,910 sq km
water: 10,090 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than Iowa
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 4,246 km
border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 580 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
Climate:
Definition Field Listing tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 55.39%
permanent crops: 3.08%
other: 41.53% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 47,250 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 1,210.6 cu km (1999)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 79.4 cu km/yr (3%/1%/96%)
per capita: 560 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
   People    Bangladesh
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 153,546,896 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 33.4% (male 26,364,370/female 24,859,792)
15-64 years: 63.1% (male 49,412,903/female 47,468,013)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 2,912,321/female 2,529,502) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 22.8 years
male: 22.8 years
female: 22.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 2.022% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 28.86 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 57.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 56.41 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 63.21 years
male: 63.14 years
female: 63.28 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.08 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 650 (2001 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladeshi
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims) (1998)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% (1998)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 43.1%
male: 53.9%
female: 31.8% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2004)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.7% of GDP (2005)
   Government    Bangladesh
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
local long form: Gana Prajatantri Banladesh
local short form: Banladesh
former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
Government type:
Definition Field Listing parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Dhaka
geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 6 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972; suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986; amended many times
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Iajuddin AHMED (since 6 September 2002)
note: the country has a caretaker government until a general election is held; Iajuddin AHMED remains as President and Minister of Defense, and all other Cabinet portfolios are held by Caretaker Advisers (CAs); the Chief CA, Fakhruddin AHMED, is roughly equivalent to a prime minister
elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election scheduled for 16 September 2002 was not held since Iajuddin AHMED was the only presidential candidate; he was sworn in on 6 September 2002 (next election NA); following legislative elections, the leader of the party that wins the most seats is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Iajuddin AHMED declared president-elect by the Election Commission; he ran unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies; members serve five-year terms; note - parliament not in session during the extended caretaker regime
elections: last held 1 October 2001 (the scheduled January 2007 election has been postponed till late 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - BNP and alliance partners 41%, AL 40%, other 19%; seats by party - BNP 193, AL 58, JI 17, JP (Ershad faction) 14, IOJ 2, JP (Manzur) 4, other 12; note - the election of October 2001 brought to power a majority BNP government aligned with three other smaller parties - JI, IOJ, and Jatiya Party (Manzur)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Bangladesh Communist Party or BCP [Manjurul A. KHAN]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [Mufti Fazlul Haq AMINI]; Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Jatiya Party (Manzur faction) [Naziur Rahman MANZUR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY and Oli AHMED]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Advocacy to End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs)
other: environmentalists; Islamist groups; religious leaders; teachers; union leaders
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador M. Humayun KABIR
chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
FAX: [1] (202) 244-7830/2771
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador James F. MORIARTY
embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500
FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
   Economy    Bangladesh
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing The economy has grown 5-6% over the past few years despite inefficient state-owned enterprises, delays in exploiting natural gas resources, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Garment exports and remittances from Bangladeshis working overseas, mainly in the Middle East and East Asia, fuel economic growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $208.3 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $72.42 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1,400 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 19%
industry: 28.7%
services: 52.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 69.4 million
note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $4.8 billion in 2005-06. (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 63%
industry: 11%
services: 26% (FY95/96)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.5% (includes underemployment) (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 45% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 27.9% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 33.4 (2000)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.1% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 24.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $7.01 billion
expenditures: $9.464 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 37.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Industries:
Definition Field Listing cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.4% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 21.35 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 19.49 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6,746 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 86,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,100 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 81,010 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 28 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13.43 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13.43 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 135.8 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $804.7 million (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $12.45 billion (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 23.8%, Germany 12.1%, UK 10.1%, France 5% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $16.67 billion (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing China 17.6%, India 13.3%, Kuwait 8.2%, Singapore 4.9% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $1.321 billion (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5.278 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $21.23 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $4.971 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $104 million (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3.61 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing taka (BDT)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing taka per US dollar - 69.893 (2007), 69.031 (2006), 64.328 (2005), 59.513 (2004), 58.15 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing 1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Bangladesh
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.187 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 34.37 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; fixed-line telephone density remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and is approaching 25 per 100 persons
domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 15, FM 13, shortwave 2 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 15 (1999)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .bd
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 376 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 500,000 (2007)
   Transportation    Bangladesh
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 16 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 15
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing gas 2,644 km (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 2,768 km
broad gauge: 946 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,822 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 239,226 km
paved: 22,726 km
unpaved: 216,500 km (2003)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8,370 km
note: includes up to 3,060 km main cargo routes; network reduced to 5,200 km in dry season (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 40 ships (1000 GRT or over) 318,621 GRT/455,420 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 27, container 5, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4
foreign-owned: 1 (China 1)
registered in other countries: 8 (Comoros 2, Honduras 1, Malta 2, Panama 1, Singapore 2) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Chittagong, Mongla Port
Transportation - note:
Definition Field Listing the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Bangladesh as high risk for armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked both at anchor and while underway; crews have been robbed and stores or cargoes stolen
   Military    Bangladesh
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force (Bangladesh Biman Bahini, BAF) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 16 years of age for voluntary military service; 17 years of age for officers (both with parental consent); conscription legally possible in emergency, but has never been implemented (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 41,199,340 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 31,968,168 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 1,311,850
female: 1,246,012 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.5% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Bangladesh
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, exchange territory for 51 small Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 small Indian exclaves in Bangladesh, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesh protests India's fencing and walling off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint Bangladesh-India boundary commission resurveyed and reconstructed 92 missing pillars in 2007; dispute with India over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation; after 21 years, Bangladesh resumes talks with Burma on delimiting a maritime boundary
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 26,268 (Burma)
IDPs: 65,000 (land conflicts, religious persecution) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

Since 2003, January 19