Botswana

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Botswana
Background:
Definition Field Listing Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most dynamic economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
   Geography    Botswana
Location:
Definition Field Listing Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 22 00 S, 24 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 600,370 sq km
land: 585,370 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 4,013 km
border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 0.65%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 99.34% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 10 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 14.7 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 0.19 cu km/yr (41%/18%/41%)
per capita: 107 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing overgrazing; desertification; limited fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
   People    Botswana
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1,842,323
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 35.2% (male 329,418/female 318,160)
15-64 years: 60.9% (male 566,239/female 556,286)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 29,165/female 43,055) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 21.2 years
male: 21 years
female: 21.4 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 1.434% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 22.96 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 14.02 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 44.01 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 44.94 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 43.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 50.16 years
male: 51.28 years
female: 49.02 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.66 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 37.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 350,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 33,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Christian 71.6%, Badimo 6%, other 1.4%, unspecified 0.4%, none 20.6% (2001 census)
Languages:
Definition Field Listing Setswana 78.2%, Kalanga 7.9%, Sekgalagadi 2.8%, English 2.1% (official), other 8.6%, unspecified 0.4% (2001 census)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.2%
male: 80.4%
female: 81.8% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.7% of GDP (2007)
   Government    Botswana
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing parliamentary republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 45 S, 25 55 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 9 districts and 5 town councils*; Central, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, Northeast, Northwest, Selebi-Pikwe*, Southeast, Southern
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 30 September 1966 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mompati MERAFHE (since 1 April 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mompati MERAFHE (since 1 April 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president indirectly elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 20 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2009); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Festus G. MOGAE elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 52%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 15-member body with 8 permanent members consisting of the chiefs of the principal tribes, and 7 non-permanent members serving 5-year terms, consisting of 4 elected subchiefs and 3 members selected by the other 12 members) and the National Assembly (63 seats, 57 members are directly elected by popular vote, 4 are appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and Attorney-General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve five-year terms)
elections: National Assembly elections last held 30 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 51.7%, BNF 26.1%, BCP 16.6%, other 5%; seats by party - BDP 44, BNF 12, BCP 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing High Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrates' Courts (one in each district)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Otlaadisa KOOSALETSE]; Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Festus G. MOGAE]; Botswana National Front or BNF [Otswoletse MOUPO]; Botswana Peoples Party or BPP; MELS Movement of Botswana or MELS; New Democratic Front or NDF
note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO]; the Independence Freedom Party or IFP [Motsamai MPHO]; the Botswana Progressive Union [D. K. KWELE]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing First People of the Kalahari (Bushman organization); Pitso Ya Ba Tswana; Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites)
other: diamond mining companies
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACP, AfDB, AU, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Lapologang Caesar LEKOA
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Katherine H. CANAVAN
embassy: address NA, Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 395-3982
FAX: [267] 395-6947
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center
   Economy    Botswana
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966, though growth slowed to 4.7% annually in 2006-07. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of nearly $15,000 in 2007. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for more than one-third of GDP and for 70-80% of export earnings. Tourism, financial services, subsistence farming, and cattle raising are other key sectors. On the downside, the government must deal with high rates of unemployment and poverty. Unemployment officially was 23.8% in 2004, but unofficial estimates place it closer to 40%. HIV/AIDS infection rates are the second highest in the world and threaten Botswana's impressive economic gains. An expected leveling off in diamond mining production overshadows long-term prospects.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $26.04 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $12.31 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.8% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $14,300 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 51.5% (including 36% mining)
services: 46.9% (2006 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 288,400 formal sector employees (2004)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.5% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 30.3% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 63 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.1% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 19.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $4.741 billion
expenditures: $3.816 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Industries:
Definition Field Listing diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.2% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 912 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.602 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 1.754 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13,490 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.973 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5.025 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 87%, Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 7%, Zimbabwe 4% (2006)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3.403 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 74%, EFTA 17%, Zimbabwe 4% (2006)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $70.89 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $9.79 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $408 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3.947 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing pula (BWP)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing pulas per US dollar - 6.2035 (2007), 5.8447 (2006), 5.1104 (2005), 4.6929 (2004), 4.9499 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing 1 April - 31 March
   Communications    Botswana
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 136,900 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.427 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: the system is expanding with the growth of mobile-cellular service and participation in regional development; system is fully digital with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east; fixed-line connections declined in recent years and now stand at roughly 8 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density currently is about 80 per 100 persons
domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations; mobile-cellular service is growing fast
international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 8, FM 13, shortwave 4 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 2 (1 state-owned, 1 private)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .bw
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5,820 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 80,000 (2007)
   Transportation    Botswana
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 85 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 74
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 54
under 914 m: 17 (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 888 km
narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 24,455 km
paved: 8,119 km
unpaved: 16,336 km (2004)
   Military    Botswana
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Botswana Defense Force (includes an air wing) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18 is the apparent age of voluntary military service; the official qualifications for determining minimum age are unknown (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 487,853
females age 16-49: 464,278 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 290,093
females age 16-49: 257,700 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 23,007
female: 22,551 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.3% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Botswana
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing Botswana still struggles to seal its border from thousands of Zimbabweans who flee economic collapse and political persecution; Namibia has long supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River at Kazungula crossing, thereby de facto recognizing the short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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