Egypt

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Egypt
Background:
Definition Field Listing The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
   Geography    Egypt
Location:
Definition Field Listing Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 27 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 2,665 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 2,450 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:
Definition Field Listing desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 2.92%
permanent crops: 0.5%
other: 96.58% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 34,220 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 86.8 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 68.3 cu km/yr (8%/6%/86%)
per capita: 923 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees
   People    Egypt
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 81,713,520 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 31.8% (male 13,292,961/female 12,690,711)
15-64 years: 63.5% (male 26,257,440/female 25,627,390)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,636,560/female 2,208,455) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 24.5 years
male: 24.1 years
female: 24.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 1.682% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 22.12 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 28.36 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.06 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 71.85 years
male: 69.3 years
female: 74.52 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.72 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 700 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.4%
male: 83%
female: 59.4% (2005 est.)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.2% of GDP (2006)
   Government    Egypt
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends last Thursday in September
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah (El Beheira), Al Fayyum (El Faiyum), Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah (El Monofia), Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf (Beni Suef), Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh (Western Desert), Qina (Qena), Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj (Sohag)
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing 11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980, 25 May 2005, and 26 March 2007
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed Mohamed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People's Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 September 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 September 2005; next election scheduled for 2011
election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura that traditionally functions only in a consultative role but 2007 constitutional amendments could grant the Council new powers (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members)
elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 7 and 20 November, 1 December 2005;(next to be held November-December 2010); Advisory Council - last held June 2007 (next to be held May-June 2010)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 311, NWP 6, Tagammu 2, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 112 (12 seats to be determined by rerun elections, 10 seats appointed by President); Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 84, Tagammu 1, independents 3
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Moussa Mustafa MOUSSA]
note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties with representation in elected bodies are listed
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Muslim Brotherhood (technically illegal)
note: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, COMESA, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador (designate) Sameh SHOUKRY
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr.
embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag and similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
   Economy    Egypt
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. In the last 30 years, the government has reformed the highly centralized economy it inherited from President Gamel Abdel NASSER. In 2005, Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF's government reduced personal and corporate tax rates, reduced energy subsidies, and privatized several enterprises. The stock market boomed, and GDP grew about 5% per year in 2005-06, and topped 7% in 2007. Despite these achievements, the government has failed to raise living standards for the average Egyptian, and has had to continue providing subsidies for basic necessities. The subsidies have contributed to a sizeable budget deficit - roughly 7.5% of GDP in 2007 - and represent a significant drain on the economy. Foreign direct investment has increased significantly in the past two years, but the NAZIF government will need to continue its aggressive pursuit of reforms in order to sustain the spike in investment and growth and begin to improve economic conditions for the broader population. Egypt's export sectors - particularly natural gas - have bright prospects.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $405.4 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $127.9 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5,000 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 13.8%
industry: 38.1%
services: 48% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 22.1 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 32%
industry: 17%
services: 51% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.1% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 20% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 34.4 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.5% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 21.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $35.05 billion
expenditures: $44.83 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 105.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Industries:
Definition Field Listing textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.5% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 102.5 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 84.49 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 946 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 168 million kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 665,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 635,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 152,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 69,860 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.75 billion bbl (1 January 2007 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 40.76 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 32.81 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 7.951 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.589 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $500.9 million (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $24.45 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 10%, Italy 9.7%, Spain 7.8%, Syria 5.7%, Saudi Arabia 5%, UK 4.3% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $44.95 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing US 11.7%, China 9.7%, Italy 6.5%, Germany 6.4%, Saudi Arabia 4.8% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing ODA, $925.9 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $31.37 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $29.2 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $48.46 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.295 billion (2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $93.48 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Egyptian pound (EGP)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Egyptian pounds per US dollar - 5.67 (2007), 5.725 (2006), 5.78 (2005), 6.1962 (2004), 5.8509 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing 1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Egypt
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11.229 million (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 30.065 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Telecom Egypt, the landline monopoly, has been increasing service availability and in 2007 fixed-line density stood at 14 per 100 persons; as of 2007 there were three mobile-cellular networks and service is expanding rapidly
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 20; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 98 (September 1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .eg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5,363 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.62 million (2007)
   Transportation    Egypt
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 88 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 72
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 7 (2007)
Heliports:
Definition Field Listing 3 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing condensate 483 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 6,466 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,518 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 5,063 km
standard gauge: 5,063 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 92,370 km
paved: 74,820 km
unpaved: 17,550 km (2004)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3,500 km
note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 68 ships (1000 GRT or over) 988,223 GRT/1,506,194 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 28, container 2, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 11 (Denmark 1, Greece 9, Lebanon 1)
registered in other countries: 59 (Bolivia 1, Cambodia 13, Georgia 13, Honduras 3, Malta 1, Moldova 1, North Korea 1, Panama 18, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 2, St Kitts and Nevis 2, St Vincent and the Grenadines 3) (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Ayn Sukhnah, Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Sidi Kurayr, Suez
   Military    Egypt
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2008)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 21,247,777
females age 16-49: 20,406,408 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 18,153,158
females age 16-49: 17,405,837 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 825,300
female: 786,590 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Egypt
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing while Sudan retains claim to the Hala'ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, both states withdrew their military presence in the 1990s and Egypt has invested in and effectively administers the area; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 60,000 - 80,000 (Iraq); 70,198 (Palestinian Territories); 12,157 (Sudan) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing current situation: Egypt is a transit country for women trafficked from Eastern European countries to Israel for sexual exploitation, and is a source for children trafficked within the country for commercial sexual exploitation and domestic servitude, although the extent to which children are trafficked internally is unknown; children were also recruited for domestic and agricultural work; some of these children face conditions of involuntary servitude, such as restrictions on movement, non-payment of wages, threats, and physical or sexual abuse
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Egypt is on the Tier 2 Watch List for the third year in a row because it did not provide evidence of increasing efforts to investigate and prosecute traffickers; however, in July 2007, the government established the "National Coordinating Committee to Combat and Prevent Trafficking in Persons," which improved inter-governmental coordination on anti-trafficking initiatives; Egypt made no discernible efforts to punish trafficking crimes in 2007 and the Egyptian penal code does not prohibit all forms of trafficking; Egypt did not increase its services to trafficking victims during the reporting period (2008)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

Since 2003, January 19