source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)


   Introduction    Macedonia
Definition Field Listing Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991, but Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. Fully implementating the Framework Agreement and stimulating economic growth and development continue to be challenges for Macedonia, although progress has been made on both fronts over the past several years.
   Geography    Macedonia
Definition Field Listing Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 41 50 N, 22 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Europe
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly larger than Vermont
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Kosovo 159 km, Serbia 62 km
Definition Field Listing 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Definition Field Listing mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 22.01%
permanent crops: 1.79%
other: 76.2% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 550 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 6.4 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 2.27
per capita: 1,118 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing high seismic risks
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
   People    Macedonia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2,061,315 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 19.5% (male 207,954/female 193,428)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 719,708/female 708,033)
65 years and over: 11.3% (male 101,036/female 131,156) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 34.8 years
male: 33.8 years
female: 35.8 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 0.262% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.81 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -0.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 9.27 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.45 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 74.45 years
male: 71.95 years
female: 77.13 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.58 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order fewer than 100 (2003 est.)
Definition Field Listing noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Definition Field Listing Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)
Definition Field Listing Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.1%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.1% (2002 census)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2005)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.5% of GDP (2002)
   Government    Macedonia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing name: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 84 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo-Oblesevo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debarca, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rostusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
note: the 10 municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute the larger Skopje Municipality
Definition Field Listing 8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Ilinden Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day
Definition Field Listing adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights and in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSh/DPA, and several small parties
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held by April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections
election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats; members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 1 June 2008 (next to be held by July 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - For a Better Macedonia 48.80%, Sun-Coalition for Europe 23.65%, Democratic Union for Integration 12.77%, Democratic Party of Albanians 8.48%, Party for European Future 1.47%, other 4.83%; seats by party - For a Better Macedonia 63, Sun-Coalition for Europe 27, Democratic Union for Integration 18, Democratic Party of Albanians 11, Party for European Future 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic League of Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Albanians or BDSh [BardYL MAHMUTI]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; For a Better Macedonia coalition [Nikola GRUEVSKI] (includes VMRO-DPMNE, SP, Democratic Union, Democratic Renewal of Macedonia, Democratic Party of Turks, Democratic Party of Serbs, SR, and smaller parties); Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Gjorgji TRENDAFILOV]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Jovan MANSIEVSKI]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Union or BDK [Hysni SHAQIR]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Party for European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Party of Free Democrats or PSD [Ljubco JORDANOVSKI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Radmila SEKERINSKA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; Sun-Coalition for Europe [Radmila SKERINSKA] (includes SDSM, NSDP, LDP, Liberal Party and smaller parties); Union of Romas or SR [Shaban SALIU]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture [Dojcin CVETANOSKI]; World Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran JOLEVSKI
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: New York, Southfield (Michigan); note - consulate general in Chicago is due to open in 2008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC
embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 2 311-6180
FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
   Economy    Macedonia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. In 2001, during a civil conflict, the economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then averaged 4% per year during 2003-07, expanding to 5.1% in 2007. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and creating jobs, despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment remains high at nearly 35%, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20 percent of GDP, that is not captured by official statistics.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $17.35 billion
note: Macedonia has a large informal sector (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $7.497 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $8,400 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 11.9%
industry: 28.2%
services: 59.9% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 890,000 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 19.6%
industry: 30.4%
services: 50% (September 2007)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 34.9% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 29.8% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 39 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.3% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 17.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing revenues: $2.508 billion
expenditures: $2.487 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 30.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing grapes, wine, tobacco, vegetables, fruits; milk, eggs
Definition Field Listing food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.7% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6.051 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 8.651 billion kWh (2007)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2007)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 2.6 billion kWh (2007)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2007)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 21,700 bbl/day (2007)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4,134 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 23,150 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2008 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2007)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 102.8 million cu m (2007)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2007)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 102.8 million cu m (2007)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (1 January 2008 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$249 million (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3.35 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Serbia and Montenegro 19.4%, Germany 14.7%, Greece 10.5%, Italy 10.2%, Bulgaria 9.9%, Croatia 5.6%, Belgium 5.1%, Spain 5.1% (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $4.977 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Germany 11.5%, Greece 11.3%, Russia 11.1%, Bulgaria 8.4%, Serbia and Montenegro 6.7%, Turkey 5.7%, Italy 5.5%, Slovenia 4.3% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $230.3 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.265 billion (31 December 2007)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $3.967 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.405 billion (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $646 million (2005)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Macedonian denar (MKD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Macedonian denars per US dollar - 44.732 (2007), 48.978 (2006), 48.92 (2005), 49.41 (2004), 54.322 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Macedonia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 463,600 (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.518 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions
domestic: combined fixed line and mobile telephone density approaching 100 per 100 persons
international: country code - 389 (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 29, FM 63, shortwave 0 (2007)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 52 (2007)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .mk
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6,001 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 685,000 (2007)
   Transportation    Macedonia
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 17 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Definition Field Listing gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 13,182 km (includes 208 km of expressways) (2002)
   Military    Macedonia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, with subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV), Special Operations Regiment (2007)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 532,856
females age 16-49: 513,684 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 444,693
females age 16-49: 428,341 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 15,141
female: 14,434 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 6% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Macedonia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing IDPs: fewer than 1,000 (ethnic conflict in 2001) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement

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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

Since 2003, January 19