Togo

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Togo
Background:
Definition Field Listing French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and fire from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.
   Geography    Togo
Location:
Definition Field Listing Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 56 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
Definition Field Listing tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 70 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 14.7 cu km (2001)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 0.17 cu km/yr (53%/2%/45%)
per capita: 28 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
   People    Togo
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 5,858,673
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 41.7% (male 1,226,320/female 1,218,182)
15-64 years: 55.6% (male 1,588,354/female 1,666,274)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 63,508/female 96,035) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 18.6 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 19 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing 2.717% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 36.66 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.48 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 57.66 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.01 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 58.28 years
male: 56.2 years
female: 60.43 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.85 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 10,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 9 years
male: 11 years
female: 7 years (2000)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.6% of GDP (2002)
   Government    Togo
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
Government type:
Definition Field Listing republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing NA years of age; universal (adult)
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, with the support of the military following international condemnation for the unconstitutional move he then stepped aside pending elections, and Abass BONFOH served as interim president; Faure GNASSINGBE later won popular elections in April 2005
head of government: Prime Minister Gilbert HOUNGBO (since 7 September 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held by 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4%, UFC 37.0%, CAR 8.2%, independents 2.5%, other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50, UFC 27, CAR 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing NA
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lorempo LANDJERGUE
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador David B. DUNN
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 261-5470
FAX: [228] 261-5501
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
   Economy    Togo
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan. Economic growth remains marginal due to declining cotton production, underinvestment in phosphate mining, and strained relations with donors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5.042 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $2.497 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 2.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $900 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 40%
industry: 25%
services: 35% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.302 million (1998)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA%
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 24.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $466.8 million
expenditures: $514.7 million (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Industries:
Definition Field Listing phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 176 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 576 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 486 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 16,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 15,130 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$159 million (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $702 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing Ghana 16.9%, Burkina Faso 14.6%, Germany 9.3%, Benin 9.2%, Netherlands 5.9%, Mali 5.8%, India 4.7% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.201 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing China 36.9%, Estonia 9.7%, Netherlands 7.9%, US 7.7%, France 7.1% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing ODA, $86.71 million (2005 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $438 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2 billion (2005)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 482.71 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
note: since 1 January 1999, the XOF franc has been pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF francs per euro
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Togo
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 82,100 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.19 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 15 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 3 (plus 2 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .tg
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 702 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 320,000 (2006)
   Transportation    Togo
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (2000)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2005)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT
by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2008)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Kpeme, Lome
   Military    Togo
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Togolese Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Togolese Navy (Marine du Togo), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, FAT), National Gendarmerie (2008)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 1,365,505
females age 16-49: 1,374,993 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 897,195
females age 16-49: 913,327 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 69,156
female: 69,200 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.6% of GDP (2005 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Togo
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 5,000 (Ghana)
IDPs: 1,500 (2007)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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