Zimbabwe

source : World Fact Book 2008 (October 2008)

SEE UPDATED INFORMATION HERE

   Introduction    Zimbabwe
Background:
Definition Field Listing The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the [British] South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection. The ruling ZANU-PF party used fraud and intimidation to win a two-thirds majority in the March 2005 parliamentary election, allowing it to amend the constitution at will and recreate the Senate, which had been abolished in the late 1980s. In April 2005, Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. President MUGABE in June 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months. General elections held in March 2008 contained irregularities but still amounted to a censure of the ZANU-PF-led government with significant gains in opposition seats in parliament. MDC opposition leader Morgan TSVANGIRAI won the presidential polls, and may have won an out right majority, but official results posted by the Zimbabwe Electoral Committee did not reflect this. In the lead up to a run-off election in late June 2008, considerable violence enacted against opposition party members led to the withdrawal of TSVANGIRAI from the ballot. Extensive evidence of vote tampering and ballot-box stuffing resulted in international condemnation of the process, and calls for the creation of a power-sharing government have been ignored.
   Geography    Zimbabwe
Location:
Definition Field Listing Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing 20 00 S, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing Africa
Area:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 390,580 sq km
land: 386,670 sq km
water: 3,910 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing slightly larger than Montana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing total: 3,066 km
border countries: Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km
Coastline:
Definition Field Listing 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing none (landlocked)
Climate:
Definition Field Listing tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Terrain:
Definition Field Listing mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save rivers 162 m
highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use:
Definition Field Listing arable land: 8.24%
permanent crops: 0.33%
other: 91.43% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing 1,740 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing 20 cu km (1987)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing total: 4.21 cu km/yr (14%/7%/79%)
per capita: 324 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water
   People    Zimbabwe
Population:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 11,350,111
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing 0-14 years: 43.9% (male 2,514,135/female 2,465,715)
15-64 years: 52.3% (male 2,671,164/female 3,260,457)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 194,854/female 243,786) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing total: 17.6 years
male: 16.4 years
female: 18.8 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing -0.787% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 31.62 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 17.29 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order NA
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 33.86 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total population: 44.28 years
male: 45.08 years
female: 43.46 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.72 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 24.6% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.8 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 170,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2008)
Nationality:
Definition Field Listing noun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1%
Religions:
Definition Field Listing syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
Languages:
Definition Field Listing English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects
Literacy:
Definition Field Listing definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 90.7%
male: 94.2%
female: 87.2% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Definition Field Listing total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2003)
Education expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.6% of GDP (2000)
   Government    Zimbabwe
Country name:
Definition Field Listing conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Definition Field Listing name: Harare
geographic coordinates: 17 50 S, 31 03 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Independence:
Definition Field Listing 18 April 1980 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Constitution:
Definition Field Listing 21 December 1979
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
Definition Field Listing 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice President Joseph MSIKA (since December 1999) and Vice President Joyce MUJURU (since 6 December 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice President Joseph MSIKA (since December 1999) and Vice President Joyce MUJURU (since 6 December 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly
elections: presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); elections last held 28 March 2008 followed by a run-off on 27 June 2008 (next to be held in 2013); co-vice presidents appointed by the president
election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 85.5%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 9.3%, other 5.2%; note - first round voting results - Morgan TSVANGIRAI 47.9%, Robert Gabriel MUGABE 43.2%, Simba MAKONI 8.3%, other 0.6%; first-round round polls were deemed to be flawed suppressing TSVANGIRAI's results; the 27 June 2008 run-off between MUGABE and TSVANGIRAI were severely flawed and internationally condemned
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate (93 seats - 60 elected by popular vote for a five-year term, 10 provincial governors nominated by the president, 16 traditional chiefs elected by the Council of Chiefs, 2 held by the president and deputy president of the Council of Chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president) and a House of Assembly (210 seats - all elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: last held 28 March 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - MDC 51.6%, ZANU-PF 45.8%, other 2.6%; seats by party - MDC 30, ZANU-PF 30; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - MDC 51.3%, ZANU-PF 45.8%, other 2.9%; seats by party - MDC 109, ZANU-PF 97, other 4
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing Supreme Court; High Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing African National Party or ANP [Egypt DZINEMUNHENZVA]; Movement for Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI, anti-Senate faction; Arthur MUTAMBARA, pro-Senate faction]; Peace Action is Freedom for All or PAFA; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; United People's Party or UPP [Daniel SHUMBA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Agrippa MADLELA]; Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance or ZIYA
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition [Xolani ZITHA]; National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]; Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenny WILLIAMS]; Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Wellington CHIBEBE]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador Marina Annette VALERE
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing chief of mission: Ambassador James D. MCGEE
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 and 250-594
FAX: [263] (4) 796-488
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green symbolizes agriculture, yellow - mineral wealth, red - blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people
   Economy    Zimbabwe
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing The government of Zimbabwe faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles with an unsustainable fiscal deficit, an overvalued official exchange rate, hyperinflation, and bare store shelves. Its 1998-2002 involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. The government's land reform program, characterized by chaos and violence, has badly damaged the commercial farming sector, the traditional source of exports and foreign exchange and the provider of 400,000 jobs, turning Zimbabwe into a net importer of food products. The EU and the US provide food aid on humanitarian grounds. Badly needed support from the IMF has been suspended because of the government's arrears on past loans and the government's unwillingness to enact reforms that would stabilize the economy. The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe routinely prints money to fund the budget deficit, causing the official annual inflation rate to rise from 32% in 1998, to 133% in 2004, 585% in 2005, passed 1000% in 2006, and 26000% in November 2007. Private sector estimates of inflation in 2007 are well above 100,000%. Meanwhile, the official exchange rate fell from approximately 1 (revalued) Zimbabwean dollar per US dollar in 2003 to 30,000 per US dollar in 2007.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.342 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing $641 million
note: hyperinflation and the plunging value of the Zimbabwean dollar makes Zimbabwe's GDP at the official exchange rate a highly inaccurate statistic (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -5.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $200 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 18.1%
industry: 22.6%
services: 59.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 4.032 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing agriculture: 66%
industry: 10%
services: 24% (1996)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 80% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing 68% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing 50.1 (2006)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12,563% official data; private sector estimates are much higher (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 16.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:
Definition Field Listing revenues: $2.442 billion
expenditures: $3.017 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 218.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs
Industries:
Definition Field Listing mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -5% (2007 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 9.95 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 12.27 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing 3.013 billion kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 16,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 13,370 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas - production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order -$649 million (2007 est.)
Exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $1.52 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing South Africa 35.1%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 8.5%, Japan 8.4%, Botswana 7.6%, Netherlands 5.4%, China 5.4%, Italy 4.2%, Zambia 4.2% (2007)
Imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $2.183 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing South Africa 50.6%, China 8.3%, US 4.4%, Botswana 4.3% (2007)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing $367.7 million (2005 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $120 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $5.155 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order $26.56 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing Zimbabwean dollar (ZWD)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar - 30,000 (2007), 162.07 (2006), 77.965 (2005), 5.729 (2004), 0.824 (2003)
note: these are official exchange rates; non-official rates vary significantly
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing calendar year
   Communications    Zimbabwe
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 344,500 (2007)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.226 million (2007)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing general assessment: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests for connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones
international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 2 international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater stations), shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing 16 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing .zw
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 15,507 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 1.351 million (2007)
   Transportation    Zimbabwe
Airports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 341 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 19
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing total: 322
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 152
under 914 m: 166 (2007)
Pipelines:
Definition Field Listing refined products 270 km (2007)
Railways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 3,077 km
narrow gauge: 3,077 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order total: 97,440 km
paved: 18,514 km
unpaved: 78,926 km (2002)
Waterways:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order on Lake Kariba (2005)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing Binga, Kariba
   Military    Zimbabwe
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing Zimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF): Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ), Zimbabwe Republic Police (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing 18-24 years of age for compulsory military service; women are eligible to serve (2007)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 3,264,258
females age 16-49: 3,048,049 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing males age 16-49: 1,643,036
females age 16-49: 1,404,663 (2008 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
Definition Field Listing male: 144,601
female: 147,627 (2008 est.)
Military expenditures:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order 3.8% of GDP (2006)
   Transnational Issues    Zimbabwe
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing Botswana built electric fences and South Africa has placed military along the border to stem the flow of thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing to find work and escape political persecution; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing refugees (country of origin): 2,500 (Democratic Republic of Congo)
IDPs: 569,685 (MUGABE-led political violence, human rights violations, land reform, and economic collapse) (2007)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing current situation: Zimbabwe is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and sexual exploitation; large scale migration of Zimbabweans to surrounding countries - as they flee a progressively more desperate situation at home - has increased; rural Zimbabwean men, women, and children are trafficked internally to farms for agricultural labor and domestic servitude and to cities for domestic labor and commercial sexual exploitation; young men and boys are trafficked to South Africa for farm work, often laboring for months in South Africa without pay before "employers" have them arrested and deported as illegal immigrants; young women and girls are lured abroad with false employment offers that result in involuntary domestic servitude or commercial sexual exploitation; men, women, and children from neighboring states are trafficked through Zimbabwe en route to South Africa
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Zimbabwe is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of human trafficking, and because the absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is significantly increasing; the trafficking situation in the country is worsening as more of the population is made vulnerable by declining socio-economic conditions (2008)
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing transit point for cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines en route to South Africa


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Source : CIA's World Fact Book 2008

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