| Olivine, more commonly known as peridot, is a beautiful green mineral. Most of the time olivine is used by jewelers. Occasionally it is ground into a dust and is used to cover the inside of iron molds to keep the liquid metal hot. It is also the birth stone for the month of August. Olivine is a silicate meaning it is partly composed of silicon and oxygen. On Mohs scale it’s hardness ranks about a 7. Over 3,000 years ago the world thought that peridot had special healing powers. At one time in ancient history it was worth more than diamonds. The stone didn’t just heal you physically but emotionally as well. Doctors would use it to heal the sick and when physiologists would use it they combined the treatment with amethyst in order to heal the broken-hearted and a troubled mind because it helped connect you to your inner self. They thought olivine could do all of this because its olive color never left it. In fact Olivine is one of the only minerals that exist in one color. It has been mined for over 3,500 years! Coal is a very common mineral that is formed when dead plant remains are compressed in swamps. The first stage of coal is called peat and is a very light brown. As coal goes through each stage it becomes darker and harder to burn. The last stage of coal is diamond and is the hardest mineral known. |
Earthquakes are caused by plate tectonics. Plate tectonics weren’t considered factual until the late 1960’s! The plates beneath the earth are constantly moving. This movment causes earthquakes, volcanoes, ridges, and mountain chains. There are 15 plates known.
Plate Techtonics can cause volcanos. A volcano is an opening in the crust of the Earth through which molten rock and gases from the interior of the Earth build up and are released. The largest volcano on earth is Mauna Loa on Hawai'i Big Island. The most active volcano is Kilauea in Hawaii. The eruption of Kîlauea Volcano began in 1983 and still continues to erupt today. Kîlauea is is said to be the home of Pele, the Hawaiian volcano goddess.
The final frontier
Outside of Earth's atmosphere lies a vacuum larger than everything but immagination. We call this vacuum space! In space lie wonderous things like nebulas, stars, and moons. The first person to walk on earth's moon is Neil Armstrong. The first person ever to exit Earth's atmosphere and enter space was a man named Yuri Gagarin. Earth is located in a galaxy called The Milky Way. Don't get it confused with the candy bar. The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy. All together there are three types of galaxies... spiral, eliptical, and irregular.